独家 | 火车站这样设计媲美航站楼?欧洲“最复杂”项目幕后解读
Getting around the Netherlands is a breeze. A majority of the population, especially the young, use bicycles and trams on home ground and a network of fast, inexpensive trains for longer distances. Every city has designated lanes and ample parking for bicycles, and the goal is to reduce car usage to a minimum. That brings uncluttered streets, cleaner air and energy savings. It helps that the Netherlands is small and flat--no mountains to scale or tunnel through--and imbued with a strong sense of communal effort. 

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
Over the past two decades, leading architects have won competitions to design greatly expanded stations in major Dutch cities--to accommodate crowds, high-speed trains, and seamless interchanges with every other form of transportation. It's a pan-European phenomenon: as national boundaries have eroded, the continent has been knitted together with high-speed lines that run from Berlin to Madrid, Paris to Naples. Spectacular new stations symbolize the revolution in convenience and speed, just as the palatial 19th-century stations celebrated the new-fangled marvel of rail travel. Those imposing monuments have been refurbished and enlarged, but sometimes a fresh start is needed.

(c) Hufton + Crow, courtesy UN Studio 
The Dutch have raised the bar--in the scale and quality of the architecture, and the systematic way these multi-level stations have been designed as hubs of commercial development. The new facilities focus on quotidian services more than the international lines, and they are thronged with residents and commuters, as well as tourists and business travelers. In fact the Netherlands was one of the last countries to join Europe's high speed network, and still has only a single route, linking Paris to Rotterdam, Schiphol Airport and Amsterdam. A second line extending to Germany is still under construction.
Dutch railways were privatised in the 1990s, and that spurred the initiative to greatly expand services and modernize key stations, but several ambitious plans were abandoned as too costly. Development was slow: it took up to 20 years to transform or rebuild these seven stations, but they are now complete and other cities are keen to follow their example.

(c) Hufton + Crow, courtesy UN Studio 
鹿特丹, 阿姆斯特丹, 乌得勒支及海牙火车站
BethemCrouwel 建筑事务所
BethemCrouwel建筑事务所曾经设计过史基浦机场的航站楼和车站。凭借经验优势,他们被选中设计阿姆斯特丹、乌得勒支和海牙的火车站,联合设计鹿特丹车站,并建设代尔夫特的基础设施。共同负责人扬·本特姆(Jan Benthem)面临的挑战是调和各方利益冲突,重建车站的同时不中断火车服务,为居民和游客创造一个舒适的环境。
The firm of Bethem Crouwel gained experience designing terminals and a station at Schiphol Airport. That gave them an advantage and they were selected to design the stations of  Amsterdam, Utrecht, and The Hague, to collaborate on Rotterdam, and create the infrastructure of Delft.  Co-principal Jan Benthem was challenged to reconcile competing interests, rebuild stations without interrupting the train service, and create a welcoming environment for residents and visitors. As he explains, "Early stations were built at the edge of cities with impressive facades and and a tangle of lines and yards behind, making that an undesirable place to live. They now occupy central locations in the cities, and we need to eliminate the back side and make them connectors, not dividers. Our stations are not so much buildings as covered city plazas."
在鹿特丹,BethemCrouwel与Meyer en Van Schooten及景观建筑机构West 8作为CS团队完成了一项联合提案。他们紧密合作,也与城市方和铁路公司方建立了密切的联系。他们一起致力于给这个城市和这个国家设计一个有价值的通道。
In Rotterdam, his firm made a joint proposal with Meyer en Van Schooten, and the landscape architects West 8. Working as Team CS, they forged close links among themselves and with representatives of the city and the railway company. Together, they insisted on a design that would be a worthy gateway to the city and to the country itself. 

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
Rotterdam was devastated by German air-raids in 1940, and was rebuilt on a larger, looser scale than traditional Dutch cities. The station is the symbol of a fresh wave of development, but it incorporates memories of the much-loved old building. A transparent roof 250 meters long protects all the platforms, which are linked by a broad concourse leading into a soaring wood-lined entry hall with a cantilevered prow pointing south to the center city. 

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
The glass roof is folded down to create a more subdued north elevation to match the scale of a 19th-century district. 

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
Rotterdam Centraal is a model of lucid organization, with a metro entrance at the center;

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
trams on the east side; buses, taxis and a huge bicycle garage to the west.

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
Even on the frequent wet days, the concourses are infused with natural light, partially shaded by solar panels. 
In Amsterdam, the architects had to work within the shell of the 1889 main station, a neo-Renaissance pile of ornamented brick,

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
transforming it to accommodate 300,000 passengers a day--ten times the number it was built to hold. A central concourse, lined with upscale shops gives access to the platforms,

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
and links the city to the ferries that crooss the Ij river to north Amsterdam, a redevelopment of the former docklands.

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
To the east is a covered passage for cyclists, lined with blue and white tiles.

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
An elevated station for local and long-distance buses has a curved glass vault that complements the three existing train canopies. Cars and taxis are banished to the furthest corner.

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
Utrecht has one of the busiest stations in the country, and the volume is predicted to double in the next 20 years. Benthem Crouwel expanded the simple diagram of the existing station, adding a skylit concourse that undulates over the platforms with their translucent canopies.


(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
In The Hague, the task was to radically remodel the 1950s station, opening it up to the city through glass walls on all four sides.  

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
The flat roof of gridded steel and glass panels is a fifth facade to be enjoyed from the neighboring high-rise buildings. 

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel
An elevated tramway slices diagonally through the lofty station hall, adding a note of drama and making this one of the more tightly-knit interchange hubs.

(c) Jannes Linders, courtesy Benthem Crouwel

Ben van Berkel & UN Studio
从建筑艺术而言,阿纳姆中央火车站堪称明星项目,这是一个弧形的拉丝不锈钢建筑体,没有一根柱子。本·范·伯克尔(Ben van Berkel)和他的工作室(UN Studio)花了20年的时间来总体规划、设计和改进这个由阿鲁普(Arup)建造的项目,力图实现高度的轻盈感和愉悦感。
Architecturally, the star is the Central Station in Arnhem, a sensously coiled column-free complex of brushed stainless steel.  Ben van Berkel and his UN Studio spent 20 years master-planning, designing and refining this project, which was engineered by Arup to achieve a marvelous sense of lightness and exhileration. 

(c) Hufton + Crow, courtesy UN Studio 
Ramps and shallow stairs link the different levels and light descends from elliptical skylights. Not since Saarinen's TWA Air Terminal (now being converted into a hotel) in New York has the experience of travel been so exciting. UN Studios have created an icon in a city that was patched together after wartime bombardment and has a deficit of remarkable buildings.

(c) Hufton + Crow, courtesy UN Studio 

Koen van Velsen
The two remaining stations are more modest in scale.
在布雷达,考恩·凡·维尔森(Koen van Velsen)利用他身为前国家铁路建筑师的规划专长,建造了一座传承荷兰南部传统砖结构的火车站。
In Breda, Koen van Velsen drew on his planning expertise as the former  National Railway Architect to construct a station that takes its cues from the traditional brick architecture of this southern Dutch city.  
Delft's central station is even more site specific. The locally based firm of Mecanoo, designed a shallow arched vault of aluminum fins printed with a vintage map of the city. 

courtesy  Mecanoo
They abstract the blue and white tilework for which this historic city is famed and enclose an intimate concourse. Benthem Crouwel were responsible for the platforms below, and the building is extended upwards with municipal offices, faced with alternating panels of clear and dark fused glass.

courtesy  Mecanoo
Together, these seven stations demonstrate the Dutch gift for problem-solving (half the country lies below sea level) and the sense of design that is deep rooted in the nation's DNA.